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Additional resources for A Study of Personal and Cultural Values: American, Japanese, and Vietnamese

Sample text

But if these items are not included, then Americans are lower in individualism than the Japanese. Oyserman et al. also found that while Americans are generally less collectivistic than other societies, American are more likely to have higher collectivism ratings than other societies when the measure of collectivism includes items about the importance of belonging to in-groups and seeking others’ advice. ), but not when the collectivism scales include items referring to preference for working in groups and exclude items relating to striving to maintain group harmony.

222). Principal components analysis has been used throughout in the study because, unlike component analysis, it does not need to assume that the dimensions found in the analysis correspond directly latent to real-world entities. However, before undertaking a cluster or principal components analysis, a decision had to be made with respect to normalizing the data. A number of components, such as social desirability, can affect 28 A Study of Personal and Cultural Values individual ratings. There are also other kinds of individual differences; for example, some people tend to use the whole range of a scale for their ratings while others tend to use just a segment of the scale.

For large samples, the effect is not great. 12 in the mean correlation between items. However, ipsatization can remove the first component that is present in unipsatized data. If the first component is not wanted because it is only a measure of social desirability or the like, then loss of the first component is a good thing. If it has important information, it is a bad thing. The literature on the pros and cons of ipsatization is large and complex (Baron 1996, Bertam 1996, Dunlap and Cornwell 1994, Cattell and Brennan 1994, Rankin and Grube 1980).

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