Download Acoustic Wave Sensors: Theory, Design by D. S. Ballantine Jr., Robert M. White, S. J. Martin, PDF

By D. S. Ballantine Jr., Robert M. White, S. J. Martin, Antonio J. Ricco, E. T. Zellers, G. C. Frye, H. Wohltjen, Moises Levy, Richard Stern

Covers a wide selection of sensors with concentrate on analyte-film interactions for varied physical/chemical absorption methods. really fascinating is the comparability of transients for reversible and irreversible interactions.

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For Ps "~. 9) indicating that the fractional shift in resonant frequency is equal to the fractional change in mass contributed by the mass layer. 8 has been found to hold for mass fractions up to about 2% [6]. Lqtoq) l/2 . 65 g/cm 3. 1 Hz, calculate the limit of mass resolution. 9, S = dfldps = -fol(pqh) = -57 Hz-cm2/~g. This means that for each 1/zg/cm 2 of mass accumulation, the resonant frequency will decrease by 57 Hz. 3 Hz)/(57 Hzcm2//zg) = 5 ng/cm 2. The high mass sensitivity calculated in the previous example justifies the term "microbalance" in describing the sensing capabilities of the quartz resonator.

8, page 32) through which a wave is passing, the transit time for the wave across the cube is ~"= 1Iv. When the wave passes through the cube, the energy density in the cube increases by the incident power times the transit time: U = P~" = P/v. Thus, P = Uv. , one in which P is constant. 48) ' where vo and Uo denote unperturbed propagation velocity and energy density, 32 2. 8 Energy stored per unit volume is dependent upon incident power flow and propagation velocity. respectively. 48 represents a fundamental relation between wave velocity and energy density for a system excited at a given frequency: the fractional change in wave velocity is equal to the negative of the fractional change in wave energy density.

9 will describe the treatment when films do not meet this criterion. 2 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AN UNPERTURBED TSM RESONATOR In the previous section we considered the conditions under which mechanical resonances would occur in a TSM resonator. In considering only the mechanical properties of the crystal, however, we neglected consideration of how these resonances would actually be excited or detected. The device uses a piezoelectric substrate material in which the electric field generated between electrodes couples to mechanical displacement.

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