By George Vosselman, Hans-Gerd Maas
Written by way of a crew of overseas specialists, this e-book offers a accomplished review of the main purposes of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning. It specializes in ideas and techniques and provides an built-in therapy of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning expertise. After attention of the know-how and processing equipment, the ebook turns to purposes, comparable to engineering, forestry, cultural historical past, extraction of 3D construction versions, and cellular mapping. This e-book brings jointly a number of the elements of the topic in a coherent textual content that may be proper for complex scholars, lecturers and practitioners.
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Additional info for Airborne and terrestrial laser scanning
This technique delivers exact positions for the whole survey flight and additionally is also a means of checking calculated GPS positions for errors. During the survey flight the aircraft will follow linear flight lines by only minor movements in roll, pitch and yaw. Such a practice is necessary to maintain the planned measurement density and to guarantee coverage without gaps. 1). The problem is that IMU gyros will “fall asleep”, if not nudged for a long time. Depending on the IMU’s characteristics, the critical period of time may be about 10 minutes.
First, for precise mapping, the vertical position of the aircraft had to be known to a level of accuracy comparable to the measurement capability of the lidar system. Second, the horizontal position of the illuminated spot on the ground (laser footprint) had also to be known. Although the second requirement is less stringent, the means to determine both aspects for larger areas with sufficient quality were not available at that time. , 1984]. Horizontal control was a tedious process as it was done post-flight by means of time-tagged photographs and rarely by IMU.
They can also be used in the so-called photon counting mode when the collected light levels are expected to be very low. , 2006]. These constitute the basic sensor for flash lidar, where range images are captured simultaneously rather than in a scanning mode. ). For the case of time-of-flight systems, a correction for the refractive index with respect to a vacuum has to be made, which is typically in the order of 300 ppm. Such corrections can be hidden in the calibration procedure. In high altitude flights, one may also want to consider the temperature gradient between flying height and the ground; for the accuracy demands of airborne laser scanning, averaging aircraft and ground temperature and pressure measurements will usually be sufficient.