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Extra resources for Alternative Solvents for Green Chemistry: 2nd Edition
View Online . 10 Chapter 1 The ‘‘Grand Challenges’’ in the search for green solvents. is because of an increase in the activation energy caused by stabilizing the reactant. In contrast, neutral reactants that pass through neutral intermediates on their way to neutral products generally show little change in reaction rate with changes in solvent polarity. However, as you will see later in this book, these are generalizations and sometimes enhanced reaction rates can occur unexpectedly when only neutral species are present throughout the whole reaction.
We all know that water and alcohols are more polar solvents than hydrocarbons such as toluene and hexane. However, we would not feel so confident describing the differences between halogenated solvents and ethers in terms of polarity. This is because polarity is actually described by several parameters and whether one solvent is more polar than another often depends on which scale or parameter you are using. 4 The terms polar, apolar and dipolar are often used to describe solvents and other molecules, but there is a certain amount of confusion and inconsistency in their application.
Greener solvents are in most cases still treated exactly the same as any other chemical and the same data requirements are expected. New greener solvents therefore need to have a sufficiently large area of application in order to justify the cost of preparation of the product dossier. The greatest change in legislation came with the introduction of REACH in the EU and other countries around the world are now updating their own legislation to introduce greater control of existing and new chemical RSC Green Chemistry No.