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By Hofstader R.A., Milner O.I., Runnels J.H. (eds.)

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2005). In the CARM method, a microchannel structure combining shallow and deep microchannels and the principle of capillarity are utilized. The procedures are shown in Figure 19. A portion of an ODS/toluene solution (1 wt%) is dropped onto the inlet hole of the shallow channel, and the solution is spontaneously drawn into this channel by capillary action. The solution is stopped at the bound­ ary between the shallow and deep channels by the balance between the solid–liquid and gas–liquid interfacial energies.

This discharge is used in ozone generators and particle precipitators. Of particular interest is a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). This is a nonthermal atmospheric pressure discharge generated by the application of high voltages, in which an insulator coating prevents the transition of the plasma discharge into an arc. The process uses a high voltage alter­ nating at kHz to GHz frequencies. 1 mm in plasma displays and 1 mm in ozone generators to several cm in CO2 lasers. Thus, although DBD is applied at large scale, for example, in the surface functionalization of synthetic fabrics and plastics to improve adhesion of paints and glues (Leroux, 2006, 2008), due to the small gap required it is typically performed in microsystems.

Another example of atmospheric plasma is a corona discharge, which is a non-thermal discharge generated by the application of a high voltage to sharp electrode tips. This discharge is used in ozone generators and particle precipitators. Of particular interest is a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). This is a nonthermal atmospheric pressure discharge generated by the application of high voltages, in which an insulator coating prevents the transition of the plasma discharge into an arc. The process uses a high voltage alter­ nating at kHz to GHz frequencies.

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