By Robert E. Huffman
This ebook is an advent to using the ultraviolet for distant sensing of the Earth's surroundings. It covers the Earth's UV radiative setting, experimental ideas, and present functions. it's my goal to supply the data had to "make a primary approximation" in regards to the use of the ultraviolet and to supply entry in the course of the literature for a extra thorough learn. * includes fresh UV purposes no longer formerly to be had in e-book shape comparable to ozone, auroral photos, and ionospheric sensing* good points vast insurance of basics of atmospheric geophysics with values for fluxes, cross-sections, and radiances* Covers options that illustrate rules of measurements with normal values* comprises quite a few references to unique literature
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Extra resources for Atmospheric ultraviolet remote sensing
This form of the equation is useful for solar flux measurements, as solar radiation is usually given in irradiance units (see Chapter 7). >')ADEK. >'). Except for D, which is in steradians, the symbols in the equation have been previously defined. The field of view (FOV), D, in steradians, is the solid angle observed by the sensor, and it is determined by the design and fabrication of the sensor. The field of view D is sometimes called the object field of view. The area observed, S, from an extended source at a slant range R is DR 2 .
This form of the radiance equation can be developed by using the general principle that the throughput of an optical system is invariant. Thus, the following equality is valid: 28 CHAPTER 3. RADIOMETRY (collector area)(object field) = (pixel area)(pixel field) The left side, outside the sensor, is the product of the effective area of the sensor aperture, A, and the object field of view, n, in steradians. The right side, inside the sensor, is the area of the sensor pixel, a, and the pixel field of view, w, in the steradians that this pixel covers at the focal plane of the sensor.
It has been found that lower altitude UV sensors in particular seem to degrade in sensitivity when in orbit. This may be due to window and detector contamination from outgassing materials on the spacecraft, especially for the early experiments before the most suitable materials for space use were known. Much has been learned about materials in space from the many satellite and shuttle flights that have been conducted to date. Even with these materials, nothing can replace extreme care in practice to avoid contamination, as described by Hunter, 1977.