By Efthimios Kaxiras
This graduate textbook designed for college students in physics, chemistry and fabrics technological know-how offers a latest therapy of the idea of solids facing the physics of electron and phonon states in crystals and the way they confirm the constitution and homes of solids. the 1st a part of the e-book offers with electrons and atoms in a crystal, and the second one half extends the dialogue to defects in crystals and to buildings with no crystalline symmetry. there are many routines all through and appendices to supply the required historical past.
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Additional resources for Atomic and Electronic Structure of Solids
2 form weakly bonded solids in the FCC structure, in which the attractive interactions are optimized by maximizing the number of nearest neighbors in a close packing arrangement. The only exception to this rule is He, in which the attractive interaction between atoms is so weak that it is overwhelmed by the zero-point motion of the atoms. 2. Left: one atom and its 12 neighbors in the face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice; the size of the spheres representing atoms is chosen so as to make the neighbors and their distances apparent.
Due to the large electronegativity of O, the covalent bonds are polarized to a large extent, so that the two types of atoms can be considered as partially ionized. This results again in a mixture of covalent and ionic bonding. The tetrahedra of Si–O atoms are very stable units and the relative positions of atoms in a tetrahedron are essentially ﬁxed. The position of these tetrahedra relative to each other, however, can be changed with little cost in energy, because this type of structural distortion involves only a slight bending of bond angles, without changing bond lengths.
Interestingly, elements with only three valence s and p electrons, like B, Al, Ga, In and Tl, do not form the graphite structure, as alluded above. They instead form more complex structures in which they try to optimize bonding given their relatively small number of valence electrons per atom. Some examples: the common structural unit for B is the icosahedron, shown in Fig. 6, and such units are close packed to form the solid; Al forms the FCC crystal and is the representative metal with s and p electrons and a close-packed structure; Ga forms quite complicated crystal structures with six or seven near neighbors (not all of them at the same distance); In forms a distorted version of the cubic close packing in which the 12 neighbors are split into a group of four and another group of eight equidistant atoms.