By Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin
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Extra resources for Bakunin on anarchy: A new selection of writings nearly all published for the first time in English by the founder of the world anarchist movement
D . Eusden, Puritans, law yers, and politics in early seventeenth-century England (N e w H aven 1958) 131. A recent account w hich de-em phasises traditional scholastic natural law thinking and instead stresses the im portance o f scepticism and the so-called ‘n ew hum anism ’ is Richard Tuck, Philo sophy and governm ent 1 5 7 2 -1 6 5 1 (Cam bridge 1993). A ccording to T uck, m any major seventeenthcentury writers on natural law - such as Grotius and H obbes - were not really w ork in g in the old scholastic tradition o f natural law at all.
B2a; Saravia, D e imperandi authoritate, 166. 23 Royalists and Patriots described as the teacher o f early m odern E urope,27 and Robert Bellarmine, a Saint and D octor o f the Catholic church, maintained that the powers o f kings were derived from an act o f transference - or ‘translation’ - to them by the people. In m odern Catholic writings on political theory this view has become know n as ‘translation theory’. After the French Revolution o f 1789, a num ber o f Catholic theorists abandoned the translation theory because o f its implica tion that the people m ight in certain circumstances depose their kings.
In the words o f Keith W rightson, ‘the family was fundam ental’. 40 O nly the heads o f families - fathers - were adm itted to any share o f political power. Servants, w om en and children were ‘subsum ed’ into the personalities o f their fathers and mas ters. Obedience was seen as the principal duty o f children and it was instilled in them by all the religious, emotional and social pressures available. C onventional morality contemplated filial disobedience with horror - a point now here better illustrated than in Shakespeare’s K ing Lear.