By Ben Albahari, Joseph Albahari
When you are programming C# 4.0 and want a bit aid, this tightly concentrated and functional ebook tells you precisely what you want to be aware of -- with no lengthy introductions or bloated examples. it truly is perfect as a succinct speedy reference or as a advisor to get you swiftly up to the mark if you happen to already understand Java, C++, or an past model of C#.
Written by means of the authors of the acclaimed C# 4.0 in a Nutshell (O’Reilly), this ebook covers the total C# 4.0 language -- with no skimping at the info -- together with:
- Features new to C# 4.0, similar to dynamic binding, non-compulsory and named parameters, and sort parameter variance
- All of C#'s basics
- Advanced issues, together with operator overloading, customized conversions, kind constraints, covariance and contravariance, lambda expressions and closures, iterators, nullable kinds, and operator lifting
- LINQ, beginning with sequences, lazy execution, and traditional question operators; completing with an entire connection with question expressions
- Unsafe code and tips, customized attributes, preprocessor directives, and XML documentation
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Additional info for C# 4.0 Pocket Reference: Instant Help for C# 4.0 Programmers
Each time the method is entered, a new int is allocated on the stack, and each time the method exits, the int is deallocated. , referencetype instances) reside. Whenever a new object is created, it is allocated on the heap, and a reference to that object is returned. During a program’s execution, the heap starts filling up as new objects are created. The runtime has a garbage collector that periodically deallocates objects from the heap, so your computer does not run out of memory. An object is eligible for deallocation as soon as nothing references it.
Passing a reference-type argument by value copies the reference, but not the object. In the following example, Foo sees the same StringBuilder object that Main instantiated, but has an independent reference to it. ToString()); // test Because fooSB is a copy of a reference, setting it to null doesn’t make sb null. ) The ref modifier To pass by reference, C# provides the ref parameter modifier. WriteLine (x); // x is now 9 } Now assigning p a new value changes the contents of x. Notice how the ref modifier is required both when writing and when calling the method.
Arrays | 33 Jagged arrays Jagged arrays are declared using successive square brackets to represent each dimension. Here is an example of declaring a jagged two-dimensional array, where the outermost dimension is 3: int matrix = new int; The inner dimensions aren’t specified in the declaration. Unlike a rectangular array, each inner array can be an arbitrary length. Each inner array is implicitly initialized to null rather than an empty array. 0 Pocket Reference Another approach is to omit the type name after the new keyword, and have the compiler infer the array type.